Abstract

Humans discount larger delayed rewards less steeply than smaller rewards, whereas no such magnitude effect has been observed in rats (and pigeons). It remains possible that rats' discounting is sensitive to differences in the quality of the delayed reinforcer even though it is not sensitive to amount.

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Selected Publications:

2010 - Present

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Holt, D. D., Green, L., & Myerson, J. (2012). Estimating the subjective value of future rewards: Comparison of adjusting-amount and adjusting-delay procedures. Behavioural Processes, 90, 302-310.

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Calvert, A. L., Green, L., & Myerson, J. (2011). Discounting in pigeons when the choice is between two delayed rewards: implications for species comparisons. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 5, article 96.

as Fisher, E. B., Green, L., Calvert, A. L., & Glasgow, R. E. (2011). Incentives in the modification and cessation of cigarette smoking. In T. R. Schachtman & S. Reilly (Eds.), Associative learning and conditioning theory: Human and non-human applications (pp. 321-342). New York: Oxford University Press.

as Jimura, K., Myerson, J., Hilgard, J., Keighley, J., Braver, T.S., & Green, L. (2011). Domain independence and stability in young and older adults' discounting of delayed rewards. Behavioural Processes, 87, 253-259.

as Manwaring, J.L., Green, L., Myerson, J., Strube, M.J., & Wilfley, D. E. (2011). Discounting of various types of reward by women with and without binge eating disorder: Evidence for general rather than specific differences. The Psychological Record, 61, 561-582.

as Myerson, J., Green, L., & Morris, J. (2011). Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 95, 175-187.

as Woolverton, W., Freeman, K., Myerson, J., & Green, L. (2011). Suppression of cocaine self-administration in monkeys: Effects of delayed punishment. Psychopharmacology, 186, 99-106.

as Green, L., Myerson, J., & Calvert, A. L. (2010). Pigeons’ discounting of probabilistic and delayed reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 94, 113-123.

as Calvert, A. L., Green, L., & Myerson, J. (2010).  Delay discounting of qualitatively different reinforcers in rats.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 93, 171-184.

asd McKerchar, T. L., Green, L., & Myerson, J. (2010).  On the scaling interpretation of exponents in hyperboloid models of delay and probability discounting. Behavioural Processes, 84, 440-444.

2000 - 2009

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Bardgett, M. E., Depenbrock, M., Downs, N., Points, M., & Green, L. (2009).  Dopamine modulates effort-based decision-making in rats.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 123, 242-251.

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McKerchar, T. L., Green, L., Myerson, J., Pickford, T. S., Hill, J. C., & Stout, S. C. (2009).  A comparison of four models of delay discounting in humans. Behavioural Processes, 81, 256-259.  

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Freeman, K., Green, L., Myerson, J., & Woolverton, W. (2009).  Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.  Behavioural Processes, 82, 214-218.

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Jimura, K., Myerson, J., Hilgard, J., Braver, T. S., & Green, L. (2009).  Are people really more patient than other animals?  Evidence from human discounting of real liquid rewards.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1071-1075.

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Holt, D. D., Green, L., Myerson, J., & Estle, S. J. (2008).  Preference reversals with losses.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 89-95.

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Estle, S. J., Green, L., Myerson, J., & Holt, D. D. (2007).  Discounting of monetary and directly consumable rewards.  Psychological Science, 18, 58-63.

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Woolverton, W. L., Myerson, J., & Green, L. (2007).  Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15, 238-244.

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Satterthwaite, T. D., Green, L., Myerson, J., Parker, J., Ramaratnam, M., & Buckner, R. L. (2007).  Dissociable but inter-related systems of cognitive control and reward during decision making: Evidence from pupillometry and event-related fMRI.  NeuroImage, 37, 1017-1031.

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Estle, S. J., Green, L., Myerson, J., & Holt, D. D. (2006).  Differential effects of amount on temporal and probability discounting of gains and losses.  Memory & Cognition, 34, 914-928.

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Yarkoni, T., Gray, J. R., Chrastil, E. R., Barch, D. M., Green, L., & Braver, T. S.  (2005).  Sustained neural activity associated with cognitive control during temporally extended decision making. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 71-84.

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Yarkoni,T., Braver, T. S., Gray, J. R., & Green, L.  (2005).  Prefrontal brain activity predicts temporally extended decision-making behavior.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84, 537-554.

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Green, L., Myerson, J., & Macaux, E. W.  (2005).  Temporal discounting when the choice is between two delayed rewards.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 1121-1133.

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Green, L., Myerson, J., Holt, D. D., Slevin, J. R., & Estle, S. J.  (2004).  Discounting of delayed food rewards in pigeons and rats:  Is there a magnitude effect?  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 81, 39-50.

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Holt, D. D., Green, L., & Muenks, W. M.  (2004).  Biological and economic effects on responding: Rate and duration of the pigeon’s key peck.  International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 203-221.

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Green, L., & Myerson, J.  (2004).  A discounting framework for choice with delayed and probabilistic rewards.  Psychological Bulletin, 130, 769-792.

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Green, L., Myerson, J., & Schneider, R. (2003). Is there a magnitude effect in tipping? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 381-386.

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Myerson, J., Green, L., Hanson, J. S., Holt, D. D., & Estle, S. J.  (2003).  Discounting of delayed and probabilistic rewards:  Processes and traits. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 619-635.

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Green, L., & Estle, S. J.  (2003).  Preference reversals with food and water reinforcers in rats.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 79, 233-242.

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Green, L., & Holt, D. D.  (2003).  Economic and biological influences on key pecking and treadle pressing in pigeons.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 80, 43-58.

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Du, W., Green, L., & Myerson, J.  (2002).  Cross-cultural comparisons of discounting delayed and probabilistic rewards.  Psychological Record, 52, 479-492.

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Myerson J., Green L., and Warusawitharana M.  (2001).  Area under the curve as a measure of discounting.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 76, 235–243.

1990-1999

 

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Green, L., Myerson, J., & Ostaszewski, P. (1999). Discounting of delayed rewards across the life span:  Age differences in individual discounting functions. Behavioural Processes, 46, 89-96.

 

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Green, L., Myerson, J., & Ostaszewski, P. (1999). Amount of reward has opposite effects on the discounting of delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 418-427.

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Green, L., Myerson, J., & McFadden, E.  (1997).  Rate of temporal discounting decreases with amount of reward.  Memory and Cognition, 25, 715-723.

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Green, L., & Rachlin, H.  (1996).  Commitment using punishment.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65, 593-601.

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Green, L., Myerson, J., Lichtman, D., Rosen, S. & Fry, A. (1996).  Temporal discounting in choice between delayed rewards:  The role of age and income.  Psychology and Aging, 11, 79-84.

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Green, L., Price, P. C., & Hamburger, M. E.  (1995).  Prisoner's dilemma and the pigeon:  Control by immediate consequences.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 1-17.

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Myerson, J., & Green, L. (1995).  Discounting of delayed rewards:  Models of individual choice.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 263-276.

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Green, L., Fry, A. F., & Myerson, J.  (1994).  Discounting of delayed rewards:  A life-span comparison.  Psychological Science, 5, 33-36.

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Green, L., Fristoe, N., & Myerson, J.  (1994).  Temporal discounting and preference reversals in choice between delayed outcomes.  Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1, 383-389.

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Green, L., & Freed, D. E.  (1993).  The substitutability of reinforcers.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60, 141-158.

1989 & Earlier

 

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Hanson, J., & Green, L. (1989).  Foraging decisions:  prey choice by pigeons.  Animal Behaviour, 37, 429-443.

 

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Hanson, J., & Green, L. (1989).  Foraging decisions: patch choice and exploitation by pigeons.  Animal Behaviour, 37, 968-986.

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Green, L., & Snyderman, M. (1980).  Choice between rewards differing in amount and delay:  Toward a choice model of self control.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 34, l35-l47.

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Rachlin, H., & Green, L.  (1972).  Commitment, choice, and self-control.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, l7, l5-22.